Discussion Paper of the Institute for Organisational Economics 6/2022

Change in Home Bias Due to Ghost Games in the NFL
Stephan Starke/Lars Vischer/Alexander Dilger
June 2022



We analyse changes in the National Football League (NFL) due to ghost games in 2020. The home bias disappears as expected. However, referee decisions do not seem to be relevant for this. There are also no significant results for semi-ghost games with a reduced number of spectators.